Heft 11, 2018
tid logo

Analyzing President Obama’s Crisis Rhetoric: The
Case of Syria

Analyzing President Obama’s Crisis Rhetoric: The Case of Syria 

Autor: Marta Rzepecka (Rzeszów)

Citation: tekst i dyskurs – text und diskurs 11, 2018 Pages 405-425
DOI: 10.7311/tid.11.2018.18


Abstract:

This article explores President Obama’s handling of the Syrian crisis between April 2011 and Sep- tember 2014. Set in the context of Obama’s philosophy and its underlying principles and values, the article examines continuity and shifts in the president’s approach to the situation in Syria, identifies the rhetorical devices deployed to communicate the way he wanted to handle the con ict as it unfolded, and ascertains the implications of his foreign policy course and discourse regarding the Syrian crisis for his public persona.

Keywords: Barack Obama, Crisis Rhetoric, Syria, Political Philosophy, US Foreign Policy

Pełny tekst - pdf


Literatur:

Bentley, Michelle (2014): Strategic taboos: chemical weapons and US foreign policy. W: International Affairs, s. 1033-1048.

Cherwitz, Richard A., Kenneth S. Zagacki (1986): Consummatory versus Justi catory Crisis Rhetoric. W: Western Journal of Speech Communication, s. 307-324.

Dow, Bonnie J. (1989): The Function of Epideictic and Deliberative Strategies in Presidential Crisis Rhetoric. W: Western Journal of Speech Communication, s. 294-310.

Foer, Franklin, Chris Hughes (2013): Barack Obama Is Not Pleased: https://newrepublic.com/article/112190/obama-interview-2013-sit-down-president (1.3.2017).

Goldberg, Jeffrey (2016): The Obama Doctrine. W: The Atlantic, s. 70-90.

Guiora, Amos N. (2012): Intervention in Libya, Yes; Intervention in Syria, No: Deciphering the Obama Administration. W: Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, s. 251-276. 

Heisey, D. Ray (1997): Cultural in uences in political communication. W: Gonzales, Alberto/ Tanno, Dolores V. (eds.): Politics, communication, and culture. Thousand Oaks, s. 9-26. 

Heisey, D. Ray (1986): Reagan and Mitterrand Respond to International Crisis: Creating versus Transcending Appearances. W: Western Journal of Speech Communication, s. 325-335. 

Heisey, D. Ray (1994). The in uence of cultural and rhetorical values on managing communication in China’s modernization process. International Symposium on Oriental Culture and Social Development. Beijing, China.

Kane, Thomas (1988): Rhetorical Histories and Arms Negotiations. W: Journal of the American Forensic Association, s. 143-154.

Kaplan, Fred (2016): Obama’s Way. The President in Practice. W: Foreign Affairs, s. 46-63. 

Kiewe, Amos (1994): Introduction. W: Kiewe, Amos (ed.): The Modern Presidency and Crisis Rhetoric. Westport, s. xv-xxxvii.

Kriner, Douglas L. (2014): Obama’s Authorization Paradox: Syria and Congress’s Continued Relevance in Military Affairs. W: Presidential Studies Quarterly, s. 309-327.

Kuypers, Jim A. (1997): Presidential Crisis Rhetoric and the Press in the Post-cold War World. Westport.

Lynch, Marc (2015): Obama and the Middle East. W: Foreign Affairs, s. 18-27.

Mayer, Kenneth R. (2014): Executive Power in the Obama Administration and the Decision to Seek Congressional Authorization for a Military Attack Against Syria: Implications for Theories of Unilateral Action. W: Utah Law Review, s. 821-841.

Medhurst, Martin J. (1994): Eisenhower, Little Rock, and the Rhetoric of Crisis. W: Kiewe, Amos (ed.): The Modern Presidency and Crisis Rhetoric. Praeger, s. 19-46.

Murray, Donette (2013). Military action but not as we know it: Libya, Syria and the making of an Obama Doctrine. W: Contemporary Politics, s. 146-166.

Obama, Barack (2011): Address to the Nation on the Situation in Libya. March 28, 2011: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=90195&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2013): Address to the Nation on the Situation in Syria. September 10, 2013: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=104085&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2014): Address to the Nation on United States Strategy To Combat the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Terrorist Organization (ISIL). September 10, 2014: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=107266&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2011): Blocking Property of Senior O cials of the Government of Syria. May 18, 2011: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=90391&st=&st1= (1.3.2017). 

Obama, Barack (2014): Commencement Address at the United States Military Academy in West Point, New York. May 28, 2014: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=105220&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2012): Letter to Congressional Leaders Reporting on the Executive Order Blocking the Property and Suspending Entry Into the United States of Certain Persons With Respect to Grave Human Rights Abuses by the Governments of Iran and Syria Via Information Technology. April 22, 2012: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index. php?pid=100690&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2012): Letter to Congressional Leaders Reporting on the Executive Order Pro- hibiting Certain Transactions With and Suspending Entry Into the United States of Foreign Sanctions Evaders With Respect to Iran and Syria. May 1, 2012: http://www.presidency. ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=100726&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2013): Memorandum on Drawdown Pursuant to Section 552(c)(2) of the For- eign Assistance Act of 1961 of up to $10 Million in Commodities and Services From Any Agency of the United States Government to the Syrian Opposition Coalition (SOC) and the Syrian Opposition’s Supreme Military Council (SMC). April 11, 2013: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=103533&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2013): Memorandum on Provision of Defense Articles and Services to Vetted Members of the Syrian Opposition for Use in Syria To Prevent the Use or Proliferation of Chemical Weapons and Related Materials, Organizations Implementing U.S. Department of State or U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Programs Inside or Related to Syria, and International Organizations for Their Use Inside or Related to Syria. September 16, 2013: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=104255&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2011): Message to the Congress Reporting on Blocking Property of the Govern- ment of Syria and Prohibiting Certain Transactions With Respect to Syria. August 17, 2011: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=91108&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2011): Remarks at the Department of State. May 19, 2011: http://www.presidency. ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=90397&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2009): Remarks in Cairo. June 4, 2009: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index. php?pid=86221&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2009): Remarks on Accepting the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo. December 10, 2009: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=86978&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2011): Remarks on the Situation in Libya. March 18, 2011: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=90162&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2013): Remarks on the Situation in Syria. August 31, 2013: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=104044&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2014): Remarks on the Situation in Syria. September 23, 2014: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=107664&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2014): Remarks Prior to a Meeting With King Abdullah II of Jordan in Rancho Mirage, California. February 14, 2014: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=104730&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2013): Statement on the Framework Agreement Between Russia and the United States on the Elimination of Chemical Weapons in Syria. September 14, 2013: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=104250&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2011): Statement on the Situation in Syria. April 22, 2011: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=90287&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2011): Statement on the Situation in Syria. April 8, 2011: http://www.presidency. ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=90248&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2011): Statement on the Situation in Syria. August 18, 2011: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=91105&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2014): The President’s News Conference With President François Hollande of France. February 11, 2014: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index. php?pid=104728&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2009): The President’s News Conference in London. April 2, 2009: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=85947&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2014): The President’s News Conference in Newport, Wales. September 5, 2014: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=107479&st=&st1= (1.3.2017). 

Obama, Barack (2013): The President’s News Conference With Prime Minister John Fredrik Reinfeldt of Sweden in Stockholm, Sweden. September 4, 2013: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=104040&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2012): The President’s News Conference. August 20, 2012: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=101939&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Obama, Barack (2013): Videotaped Remarks on the Situation in Syria. January 29, 2013: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=103217&st=&st1= (1.3.2017).

Pollock, Mark A. (1994): The Battle for the Past: George Bush and the Gulf Crisis. W: Kiewe, Amos (ed.): The Modern Presidency and Crisis Rhetoric. Westport, s. 203-224.

Pratt, James W. (1970): An Analysis of Three Crisis Speeches. W: Western Speech, s. 194-203. 

Rose, Charlie (2013): President Barack Obama: https://charlierose.com/videos/17754 (1.3.2017).

Saunders, Paul J. (2016): Choosing Not to Choose. W: The Realist, s. 5-8.

Walters, Barbara (2012): Obama Recognizes Syrian Opposition Group: http://abcnews.go.com/

Politics/OTUS/exclusive-president-obama-recognizes-syrian-opposition-group/story?id=17936599 (1.3.2017).

West, Bing (2013): The Unbelievably Small Syria Strategy. W: National Review, s. 18-19. 

Williams, Brian (2011): President Obama Talks Libya: https://archives.nbclearn.com/portal/site/k-12/ atview?cuecard=52686 (1.3.2017).

Windt, Theodore Otto, Jr. (1973): The Presidency and Speeches on International Crises: Repeating the Rhetorical Past. W: Speaker and Gavel, s. 6-14.

Windt, Theodore Otto, Jr. (1987): The Presidency and Speeches on International Crises: Repeating the Rhetorical Past. W: Windt, Theodore Otto, Jr./ Ingold, Beth (eds.): Essays in Presidential Rhetoric. Dubuque, s. 125-134.

Windt, Theodore Otto, Jr. (1990): Presidents and Protesters: Political Rhetoric in the 1960s. Tuscaloosa.

 

Lizenz

Die Texte in unserer Zeitschrift werden unter Lizenz CC BY-NC 4.0 veröffentlicht.
Creative commons

Kontakt:

Waldemar Czachur

Diese E-Mail-Adresse ist vor Spambots geschützt! Zur Anzeige muss JavaScript eingeschaltet sein!


Adresse:

Uniwersytet Warszawski

Instytut Germanistyki

Waldemar Czachur

ul. Dobra 55,

PL-00-311 Warszawa

Nasza strona internetowa używa plików cookies (tzw. ciasteczka) w celach statystycznych oraz funkcjonalnych. Dzięki nim możemy indywidualnie dostosować stronę do twoich potrzeb. Każdy może zaakceptować pliki cookies albo ma możliwość wyłączenia ich w przeglądarce, dzięki czemu nie będą zbierane żadne informacje.